The Great Depression and Wartime Migration

Students will learn and teach each other about the Dust Bowl Migration during the Depression and afterwards. Students will understand how the large influx of people into California affected many Mexican Americans leading to the Mexican repatriation. Students will be able to connect the Japanese internment during WWI and WWII with the economic struggle and mass migration during this period. Students will be able to contemplate and extract the differences between migration, repatriation, internment, resettlement, and deportation. This lesson will help students gain a better understanding of the various legally sanctioned forced relocations in our nation’s history. This lesson will also help students understand how a certain demographic may be scapegoated during times of economic downturn or crises and how there continues to be an ongoing link between immigration policies and economic trends.

Little Miss Cotton advertizing photograp

 Fresno County Historical Society Archives. 

LESSON AND INTRODUCTORY MATERIAL

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Vietnam Lesson pg 1.jpg

LESSON PLAN - The Great Depression & Wartime Migration to California 
Fresno County Historical Society.

Presentation Assesment Rubric.jpg

Presentation Assessment Rubric

Group Assessment

PRIMARY AND SECONDARY SOURCES

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Source Material: Black Okie 

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Article by photographer and author Ernest Lowe.  Harvesting My Life: Six decades of Ernest Lowe's offering to the world

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California Odyssey Project & Dust Bowl Migration Archives, California State University, Bakersfield

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Dorthea Lang Digital Archive, Oakland Museum of Califrornia 

Migratory Worker Problem Belongs to the Entire Nation, by Paul Friggens, Oakland Tribune, April 1940

Teachers Open Institute; To Hear OutlandSanta Maria Times, September 1943

A "flat Tired People": The Health of California Okies During the 1930s, by Christy Gavin and Garth Milam, California Odyssey: Dust Bowl Migration Archives

Source Material: White Okie 

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Dorthea Lang Digital Archive, Oakland Museum of Califrornia 

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The Great Okie Migration, Smithsonian American Art Museum

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California Odyssey Project & Dust Bowl Migration Archives, California State University, Bakersfield

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The Dust Bowl Migration Poverty Stories, Race Stories, by James Gregory, University of Washington

Agricultural Crops - Cotton
Agricultural Crops - Cotton

Cotton pickers in the Field
Cotton pickers in the Field

Agricultural Crops - Cotton
Agricultural Crops - Cotton

Agricultural Crops - Cotton
Agricultural Crops - Cotton

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Citizenship Contested: The 1930s Domestic Migrant Experience in California's San Joaquin Valley, by Toni Alexander, Southeastern Geographer, Vol 51, No 1, Spring 2011

Migratory Worker Problem Belongs to the Entire Nation, by Paul Friggens, Oakland Tribune, April 1940

Primary Sources: Mexican American

Emilano Children:  Patricia Perez, Manuela Emiliana, Rodolfo Pedro, circa 1890. Fresno County Histor
Emilano Children: Patricia Perez, Manuela Emiliana, Rodolfo Pedro, circa 1890. Fresno County Histor

Avila Family, circa 1948.  Fresno County Historical Society Archives
Avila Family, circa 1948. Fresno County Historical Society Archives

Perez White Blacksmith Shop in Fresno on K Street, circa1895. Fresno County Historical Society
Perez White Blacksmith Shop in Fresno on K Street, circa1895. Fresno County Historical Society

Emilano Children:  Patricia Perez, Manuela Emiliana, Rodolfo Pedro, circa 1890. Fresno County Histor
Emilano Children: Patricia Perez, Manuela Emiliana, Rodolfo Pedro, circa 1890. Fresno County Histor

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Link

America's Forgotten History of Mexican American 'Repatriation', Fresh Air, NPR, 2015

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California Odyssey Project & Dust Bowl Migration Archives, California State University, Bakersfield

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Latino Americans: Identiy, Immigration & Economics: The Involuntary Deportation of the 1930s, PBS 

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Operation Wetback (1953-1954), Immigration History, The University of Texas at Austin, 2019 

Fresno's Hispanic Heritage: Mexican In the Valley, 1900-1930, by Alex Saragoza

Source Material: Japanese American

Kunishige Family Photos, Circa 1915

Kearney Vineyard cook Tozuchi (Harry) Kunishige, circa 1925. Kunishige Family Photographs, Kearney V
Kearney Vineyard cook Tozuchi (Harry) Kunishige, circa 1925. Kunishige Family Photographs, Kearney V

Tozuchi (Harry) and Hara Kunishige with sons Fred and Kearney in automobile behind Kearney Mansion a
Tozuchi (Harry) and Hara Kunishige with sons Fred and Kearney in automobile behind Kearney Mansion a

Hiro Kunishige, son of Kearney Vineyard cook Tozuchi (Harry) Kunishige, at Kearney Park pool, circa
Hiro Kunishige, son of Kearney Vineyard cook Tozuchi (Harry) Kunishige, at Kearney Park pool, circa

Kearney Vineyard cook Tozuchi (Harry) Kunishige, circa 1925. Kunishige Family Photographs, Kearney V
Kearney Vineyard cook Tozuchi (Harry) Kunishige, circa 1925. Kunishige Family Photographs, Kearney V

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Japanese Community Building in Fresno County, by Katy Hogue and Ryan Dudley, Fresno County Historical Society Archives

California Alien Land Laws and World War II in the San Joaquin Valley, by Katy Hogue, Fresno County Historical Society Archives

Pinedale History Project Photo Collection

Japanese internees waiting to board train for Camp Pinedale, Tacoma, Washington, 1942. Tacoma Public
Japanese internees waiting to board train for Camp Pinedale, Tacoma, Washington, 1942. Tacoma Public

Japanese internees boarding train for Camp Pinedale, Tacoma, Washington, 1942. Tacoma Public Library
Japanese internees boarding train for Camp Pinedale, Tacoma, Washington, 1942. Tacoma Public Library

Soldiers of Japanese Descent Reach Fresn
Soldiers of Japanese Descent Reach Fresn

Japanese internees waiting to board train for Camp Pinedale, Tacoma, Washington, 1942. Tacoma Public
Japanese internees waiting to board train for Camp Pinedale, Tacoma, Washington, 1942. Tacoma Public

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Nisei In Uniform, Department of the Interior, War Relocation Authority, 1943

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Silent Sacrifice: Stories of Japanese American Incarceration in Central California and beyond, Valley PBS, 2018

PBS Film to Chronicle WWII Freedom Loss for Valley Japanese Americans, by John Sammon, Nikkei West

Pinedale Logger, Pinedale Assembly Center, May 30, 1942

Pinedale Logger, Pinedale Assembly Center, May 23, 1942

Pinedale Logger, Pinedale Assembly Center, June 27, 1942

Pinedale Logger, Pinedale Assembly Center, June 20, 1942

Pinedale Logger, Pinedale Assembly Center, June 13, 1942

Pinedale Logger, Pinedale Assembly Center, June 6, 1942

Pinedale Logger, Pinedale Assembly Center, July 14, 1942

Pinedale Logger, Pinedale Assembly Center, July 10, 1942

Pinedale Logger, Pinedale Assembly Center, July 3, 1942